Traffic injuries have become a serious problem for all countries in the world, due to the heavy human, social and economic losses that they cause.
From this grim reality, countries, international and private organizations and other concerned parties have begun to deal with this problem with increasing interest and take various measures and measures such as enacting new laws and legislations that suit changes in this field, improving road infrastructure, rescue and ambulance services, and preparing plans and programs that will work to reduce The severity of traffic accidents and reducing them.
And if we take into account the main factors in the traffic accident, which is the road, the vehicle and the human being, then we find that the latter as a road user is the one who has the most responsibility in causing the accident, which confirms the importance of awareness and awareness of road users on their various groups and ages to contribute actively to address the bitter reality witnessed Roads are from painful accidents to which many people are victims, starting from the culture and civilization of society and from the foundations and standards binding for the individual in the systems and laws by state institutions in order to qualify him to the correct and strong degree through spreading and generalizing the traffic safety culture and emphasizing its application to reduce accidents and the tragedies and tragedies that affect Human and economic wealth of society.
The painful reality
Road traffic accidents are the second leading cause of death among people ages 5-25, as young men from that group of pedestrians, cyclists or motorists, new people driving cars or their passengers are more likely to die or be injured three times more than The proportion of young women (75%), and children and youth make up a high percentage of about 1.3 million people killed on the roads of the world annually (3000 people die every day), which constitutes 2.1% of deaths in the world, which makes traffic accidents a place compared to the numbers of deaths caused by diseases Major killers such as malaria and tuberculosis, and injuries or disabilities occur in 50 million others, and people between the ages of 5-25 years account for more than 40% of all road traffic deaths globally.
As for traffic accident losses, it costs the countries with low and middle income 1-1,5% of their national income, and the high-income countries cost 2% of their national income annually, and the losses resulting from them are estimated at about (518) billion dollars worldwide.
At the level of the United Arab Emirates, the number of traffic accidents decreased by 15.18% in 2006 compared to 2005, and the number of deaths among citizens decreased by 13.82%, while the total number of deaths in the country increased by 5.42%, and the total number of injuries increased by 4.78% and citizen deaths 21.37% of the total number of deaths (875) deaths.
Can we avoid traffic accidents?
The number of road traffic injuries has decreased in some countries, despite the increasing number of means of transportation, through dealing with a number of factors such as preventive education and excessive speed, the use of seat belts, helmets, road planning and infrastructure, which can be dealt with To save a lot of lives and save a lot of financial resources.
Since children are among the groups most vulnerable to traffic accidents and many of them die as victims of runaway accidents every year, it is primarily the responsibility of adults to provide safety and protection for them.
Each time the driver is unable to use a common phrase, “I did not have an opportunity to avoid the accident.” The child is not able to give the driver such an opportunity, but he has to provide it to himself as long as he finds a child in front of him who can issue a reckless behavior that is the cause of the accident. The appendix, the neglect of the family for its children and allowing them to play in the streets, was behind many incidents of run over children.
The role of the family
The family should prevent its children from going out into the streets for the purpose of playing games, and give them the opportunity to practice this activity in safe places such as parks and playgrounds, and parents also have a responsibility to educate children and train them in practice on the proper ways to walk in and cross roads, and provide a simplified explanation of traffic rules And explain the meanings of signs and traffic signs.
Traffic awareness for children is a task in which schools participate, but it is the responsibility of parents to fix these matters in the minds of children through emphasizing them through explanation and practical training on the road, and that parents set an example for their children regarding what is related to the traffic system and its rules.
The following are some of the things that should be clarified for children and obliged to follow them while on the road or crossing:
- Pedestrian sidewalks should be used wherever they are found, not to drive in the road as designated for vehicles and to ensure that the road is clear of vehicles before descending from the sidewalk.
- Commitment to the far side of the road while walking, and if you are with other people do not walk more than two side by side, especially if the sidewalk is narrow or on turns.
Do not allow young children to go out on the road without supervision, especially to the roads where vehicles frequently pass, and if they go out with children, they must hold their hands, and stick to a path that is farthest from the vehicle's path.
- When there are roadside barriers, it is not necessary to jump over them, or to walk between them and the vehicles, but rather the openings in these barriers that are exclusively for pedestrian crossing should be used.
- Avoid going down the road from the cars on its side, and if you have to pass parked cars, wait next to them until they are visible by drivers, and you can even notice the traffic around you.
- Crossing the road at night is more dangerous, so make sure to cross from the pedestrian crossing lanes, and in the absence of it, choose to cross from a location near one of the lampposts, and it is preferable to wear light-colored clothes (or to wear or carry something reflective) so that he can The driver can see you, if the lighting is not sufficient in the way.
Do not cross the road if you see or hear emergency vehicles (such as ambulances, fire, police, convoys, etc.) coming towards you, but wait until these vehicles pass.
- Do not get off a bus or go up to it as long as it is moving, and do not cross the road in front of or behind it, wait until the bus has left before starting crossing.
Use tunnels and overpasses intended for pedestrian crossing, as they are the safest place.
Pedestrian safety and right to the way
The safe driving inside the cities and its residential and commercial neighborhoods depends on the smart expectation on the part of the driver for the actions that can be issued by road users, in addition to adhering to the traffic rules, he must observe fitness and courtesy, and estimate the conditions, while ensuring that it does not cause an accident , As this would provide safety for our children and for all who use the road.
The driver should be very careful in areas where pedestrians abound, especially in crowded streets and residential areas or near parked cars, especially school buses, and give the way for pedestrians wishing to cross from the designated lanes for that, and upon approaching a pedestrian crossing, if It required complete stopping and issuing a signal indicating his speed and stopping him, after making sure that there was no car behind him that could hit him in the event of a sudden stop, then stopping at the line that precedes the crossing.
Whenever pedestrians wish to cross, the driver must do the following: -
1- To give himself more time to stand up if the road is slippery due to moisture or rain, for example.
2- To give children, the elderly and the handicapped more time to cross the road, and to always remember that there are those with hearing impairment, and they do not hear the sound of cars approaching them.
3- The driver should not issue any pedestrian signal stating that he has given them the way to cross, so there is no special signal for that, and it is dangerous for such a pedestrian call to be issued by one of the drivers, because he may not be sure of the position of the rest of the drivers and he should leave It is up to the infantry to appreciate the situation.
4- Adhere to the established rules, because that will make everyone know what is expected of you.
Use a seat belt
The use of seat belts has become compulsory in most countries of the world, as is the case in the state, and the use of seat belts in these countries has significantly reduced the number of injuries and the degree of their severity, as it has saved many lives, as it reduced the risk of injury by 40- 50% of the fatal injuries are 40-60%.
What is the use of seat belts?
When a vehicle stops suddenly, everything inside it, including the driver and passengers, continues to rush, and at the same speed as the vehicle is launched, and that is forward unless they are attached to seat belts, in which case the driver and passengers are pushing from the seats to hit the wheel or The windshield of the car or other parts inside it, which puts them at risk of injury or death.
The seat belt has been designed to limit the movement of passengers inside the vehicle as quickly as possible. In the event of a collision and rush of the body forward, the seat belt expands and absorbs part of the impulse force, to distribute it over a larger area of the body, and this necessarily leads to a decrease in the force of the body's rush. The collision inside the car is less violent and dangerous.
Fasten seat belts
Some injuries may occur to the driver and passengers even though they are attached to the seat belt, due to the fact that they are not attached to it in the proper way, as the excessive loosening of the seat belt causes the body to rush when the accident occurs a distance before the belt begins to limit its impulse, and so there are potential for injury as a result of collision with the internal surfaces of the car .
Therefore, the abdominal ligament should be tight in a comfortable way for the body, and it should fall to the bottom so that it is directly above the thighs. As for the shoulder strap, it must be tight as well, so that there is no distance for more than the passage of the hand from the bottom, and it must be located above the collarbone , So that it does not rise up to surround the neck, or falls down to slide over the shoulder.
Experts stress the need for the belt to be tightly tied so that its effect is effective in the event of an accident, and to avoid the body rushing forward to collide with anything inside the limited space of the car.
Regular seat belts are suitable for children over the age of twelve, and for children younger than that, there are other ways to protect them as an alternative to seat belts.
There are many ways to provide this protection. A young child who cannot yet sit can be placed in a portable stroller that is fixed to the back seat with a special strap.
And children from nine months to four thirty at the latest must be put in a seat in safety to be installed in a special way in the back seat.
As for children between the ages of four and twelve, they must use their own protective bands, which are intended for children whose bodies are small enough to use adult safety belts. These bands are linked to children around the shoulder and waist. Wearing such belts not only provides protection to children, but also returns them. It encourages them from an early age to wear seat belts throughout their life years.
The risk of injury without a seat belt
The passenger in the front seat is more vulnerable than others in terms of the severity of the injury in the event of a car accident accident if he was not using a seat belt, followed by in terms of the risk of injury to the driver himself.
As for the passengers in the rear seats, they are the least exposed to the risk of injury, and all these risks can be minimized by wearing seat belts.
The head and chest are the most exposed parts of the body in the event of not wearing a seat belt, as the injury to these two parts of the body are at the forefront of the causes leading to death, due to the impact of the driver and passengers on the internal surfaces of the car.
The safety belt also prevents the driver and passengers from being ejected outside the car, as the injury and the risk of death increase by at least twice in the event that the driver or passenger is ejected when the accident occurs.
There is a misconception that a seatbelt may annoy the driver or passengers, impede their movement and vice versa here is the correct one, as fastening the belts helps to keep the driver in the proper position to drive, and prevents him from feeling tired, which is often caused by the relaxation of the body or the unsafeness of his position while driving.
Also, some people think that wearing a seat belt is only necessary on long trips where the speed is high, and in fact it is necessary to use the seat belt on all trips, whether short or long, and whatever the speed, because exposure to accidents is more frequent within cities And injuries can occur even at relatively slow speeds. This means that accidents and exposure to the risk of injury are not related to a specific distance or speed, and that the driver and passengers must adhere to the use of seat belts every time the vehicle is used.
Speed is considered one of the main factors causing horrific traffic accidents that result in deaths and serious injuries, due to the force of the collision or the severe deterioration that causes excess speed.
Many young people in particular tend to drive at excessive or inappropriate speeds due to their impulsiveness and the indiscretion of some of them, where it is noticed that most accidents resulting from speed are usually young people involved in it.
The legislators have determined the speed on the roads, both internal and external, after conducting studies that took into account the conditions surrounding the roads and various influences such as the size and length of the road, weather conditions, population density, traffic on it and other factors, which requires road users from drivers to adhere to the specified speed in order to preserve For their safety and other road users.
Scientifically, the 1 km / h decrease in traffic speed resulted in a 4-5% reduction in fatal collisions, and the speed with which the traffic moves also protects the pedestrian.
It is a constant fact that speed has a direct impact on determining the field of view in front of the driver. With slow speed, the driver’s eyes are focused on things close to him, and with the increase in speed his eyes look at the most distant objects, and that is because the driver’s eyes change automatically from the focus according to the increase in speed.
The general rule that can be inferred from this is that "with increasing speed, the direction of the eye is on the distant vision and the visibility with respect to the proximal distance is less clear."
And the speed in this way can turn into a real danger, especially if used in the wrong place. If the traffic is medium or heavy, the driver needs to see the details close to it in order to avoid accidents or shock, and must then reduce the speed to the extent that the eye is allowed From covering the distance immediately to the car, and observing what is going on quite clearly.
Speed and standing distance
When there is any danger or emergency circumstance that requires parking the car to avoid it, the car does not stop at the moment of seeing this danger, or even just by pressing the brakes, but the car must travel a distance before its driver can stop it, which is called the "parking distance".
The parking distance can be defined as the distance the car travels from the moment the driver realizes his need to press the brakes to stop the car until the moment he actually stops, and the determination of the parking distance depends on five factors:
1- How fast is the car.
2- The condition of the road and whether it is flat or heading towards elevation or slope.
3- Weather conditions.
4- Brake and tire condition.
5- The driver's ability, skill, attention and alertness.
The parking distance can be divided into two stages, the first is the distance the car travels between the moment when the driver notices the presence of danger or any emergency circumstance that requires parking and the moment when he moves his foot to press the brakes, which is a period of seven tenths (0.7) the second if The driver was in his normal condition, and this period will be prolonged if the person is old or stressed or distracted to reach a second or more, and the distance the car covers during this period is called "the reaction distance".
The second stage is the other distance that the car travels between the moment when the driver begins to press the brakes and the moment when the car actually stops, as the time required for that reaches about a second, and the car travels through another distance called the "brake distance" and increases this distance, and can even It doubles when the road is slippery or covered in moisture or sand, and this distance also increases when the condition of the brakes and tires worsens.
The total distance the vehicle covers when a danger or emergency condition arises in front of the driver is called the "parking distance" and consists of the total reaction distance and the brake distance.
The speed of the car is the decisive factor in determining this distance, and therefore determining the extent of the driver's ability to avoid an accident or his failure to do so and his exposure to all the consequences that may be himself the first of its victims.
If the driver is in his normal condition on a dry road, and the brake and tire conditions are good, then the car must be covered 10.8 meters before parking if it is traveling at 30 kilometers per hour.
In the same conditions, the total parking distance is 32.4 meters if the car speed increases to 60 kilometers, and the parking distance reaches 77.7 meters, unless the car speed reaches 100 kilometers and so on.
The driver keen to avoid accidents takes these important facts into consideration so that he is ready for any surprise that he may encounter on the road, and to allow himself the opportunity to avoid danger.
Being aware of these facts related to the distance the vehicle traveled before stopping requires the driver to consider the following:
1- The necessity of reducing the speed inside the cities, as the pressure of cars and pedestrians increases, in order to avoid crashes and run over.
2- The necessity of setting speed on the external roads, so that the driver can stop the car at the right moment, and before falling into the danger of hitting cars or loose animals.
3 - Concentration of attention while driving and stopping it in the event of fatigue or fat dispersion, the driver's physical and psychological state has a great impact on the speed of attention to danger, and the speed of parking the car before committing a shock or run over accident.
4- The necessity of paying attention to the maintenance of the car, and the validity of the brakes and tires in particular, so that it can stand at full speed when the danger looms
5- Finding a sufficient follow distance between each car and another, and increasing this distance in proportion to the increase in speed, according to the weather and road conditions, so that the driver can stop his car in the event that the driver in front of him is forced to stop suddenly without being subjected to a shock from the rear.
The following table shows the total parking distance covered by the car on the dry road according to the average reaction time of seven tenths (0.7) of the second, and when the driver is in his normal state, bearing in mind that the brake distance can be doubled if the road is slippery, and that the distance The reaction can also increase as the response time to risk increases with the effect of the driver's physical or mental condition.
My driver's brother
You should watch the children with care as soon as you approach them, as you pass through them, and be ready to stand at any moment, and when stopping to allow children to cross the road, be sure to give them time to do so.
Children who play on or near roads often forget about traffic in them as a result of being busy playing, and you should take this into consideration when approaching where they are, or when you are passing through the residential areas in which they live.
When you see a child running in front of you on the road, you do not know what his behavior will be, and you must bear in mind all possibilities and be ready to take proper action at the right time.
Although children are not allowed to ride bicycles on the road, this is something that must be taken into account, especially during school holidays, and when passing in residential areas, and the driver, when approaching a child riding a bicycle, should move away from him as much as possible, and expect the child to change his direction suddenly .
Be more careful when approaching schools, especially in times of attendance and departure, and anticipate the presence of some children who cross the road, or may walk on it, and be more careful if the vision is less clear, as in the case of fog spreading in the morning.
It is imperative that before returning the car to the back to make sure that there are no children behind, and it may not suffice for that just to look from the window, but it takes a step down from the car to look around.
When detouring to secondary roads, the driver must warn of the possibility of children in the width of the road, and take this into account by slowing down the speed, and allowing them, if they are present, to return to the sidewalk or to cross safely.
Be sure while walking on the road to keep the little boy in your hand, and do not let him go away from you for any reason.
Children need special care to provide safety for them while they are riding in the car, the first of which is the necessity of sitting in the rear seats of the car, while attaching them to the appropriate safety belt, and remember that the passenger in the front seat of the car is most at risk of injury in the event of an accident, but the passengers in the rear seats are the least Were injured.
Do not lose sight of taking necessary and simple safety precautions at the same time, such as tightly closing the car doors and not allowing children to tamper with them, and preventing them from taking their hands or heads out of windows, and they should not be allowed to stand, jump or move around in the car while it is walking.
· Children imitate adults quickly, so be sure to be a good example for them .. Explain to the child the traffic system in simplicity, and train him in practice to protect himself while walking on the road and crossing it .. And talk to him about the traffic system, and how that commitment to it provides safety for all road users. He drew his attention to the traffic signs on the road, explained to him what they meant, and what the driver was required to follow when seeing it, and explained to him the danger of violating it.
Keep your child safe now, and teach him how to keep him safe in the future ... Let us all make sure that our children are not victims of traffic accidents.
Leave a distance between cars while driving
Driving cars is one of the skills in which a person uses four of his five senses, in addition to a sixth sense which is the sense of expectation and awareness of danger solutions, so the car driver while practicing driving must not be preoccupied with others and focus all his attention on what he does from work and The skill he needs so that he does not make mistakes leading to an accident and that he is able to avoid the mistakes of others as a result of attention, focus and expectation, which is what is known as Defensive Driving.
Rear accidents are one of the most common traffic accidents, especially inside cities, and are often due to a lack of attention to cars calming the speed as a result of approaching an intersection, traffic light, or calming the speed for the purpose of turning to the right or left, leading to accidents from the rear.
Hence, leaving enough distance between the car and the other is one of the most important driving skills that the driver must be familiar with, to make sure to adhere to it so that he does not expose himself and others from the road users to dangers, and this is what is stipulated in the first article of the executive regulations of the Traffic Law and The Federal Traffic, which states: Every road user must abide by the traffic rules and etiquette, follow his signs and signs, and the instructions of traffic and police officers, and take into account in his conduct the utmost care and commitment of precaution and caution necessary, and that his behavior does not lead to harm to others or Put it at risk .....)
And Article 50 of the regulation states (Every vehicle driver must leave between him and the vehicle in front of him enough distance to enable him to stop when the front vehicle suddenly lowers its speed and he must pay attention to the signals of its driver, and it is not permissible to use the brakes suddenly without justification, and Drivers of all vehicles traveling in one group must leave enough distance between each vehicle and the other to enable the fastest vehicles to resort to these distances in order to avoid accidents and dangers when skipping)
The law regulates how to travel on the road and the driver's obligations to leave enough distance between him and the car in front of him to avoid accidents, but as for the length of this distance that the driver must leave and which is safe for him and the driver who is walking in front of him, there are several factors that interfere in determining these The distance in terms of length or shortness, including the number of tracks on the street, the degree of congestion, the speed allowed on the road, and any path occupied by the driver. In many cases, the driver who walks in the right path of the road is surprised by the driver who is traveling in front of him, suddenly calming the speed to deviate to a street A sub-branch to the right, and the driver traveling in the middle lane may be surprised by calm surprise from the driver in front of him in order to get close to the traffic light, and all behaviors bear responsibility on both drivers, because the law requires that a change in direction be reached before reaching the intersection with a sufficient distance to warn those coming from behind, It also places the same responsibility on the one coming from behind, leaving enough distance to avoid sudden calm, which is prohibited by law, as already mentioned.
The distance between the car and the other is not limited to the internal roads only, it is more urgent on the external roads, where speed is an important factor in the necessity of increasing the longitudinal separation in the distance between the car and the other, given that the speed accelerates the distance reduction and increases the possibility of accidents.
The road represents an integrated society whose members are drivers and pedestrians, and each of them has a number of duties as well as a number of other rights, and the individual can not be accounted for by obtaining his rights only after he fulfills his duties.
On the obligation to leave an appropriate distance between the car and the other as well as being a legal obligation regulated by the articles of the executive regulations of the Traffic and Traffic Law, it is a precautionary measure that every driver must take to avoid accidents, so if the individual has a spirit of commitment to the traffic rules in addition to harnessing his senses and focusing towards Driving is not preoccupied with others, as this would protect the driver and other road users from the accidents of traffic.
Travel is one of the most important means of renewing human activity and vitality, and expressing itself and gaining acquaintance with people, getting acquainted with the civilizations of countries and peoples cultures, and enjoying the nature and tourist sites that reflect its history and civilization.
During his vacation, one departs from the daily pressures of work and gives himself a degree of freedom in those countries and places, and records those moments with his lens to return to, to return him to those moments that worked to make him happy and feel comfortable.
In order to ensure that the vacation period is spent at rest and away from any troubles that may be cloudy, preventive measures must be taken before traveling, during travel and in the country to travel to.
Preventive measures before travel:
Dear traveler, insure your home before traveling and close it.
- Inform the nearest police station about the date and duration of your travel.
Do not leave valuable jewelry or important documents inside the home when you travel. It is better to deposit them in the safety boxes provided by banks.
- Make sure the passport is valid and that you have obtained the entry visa for the country you want to travel to.
Be sure to confirm your travel reservations (departure and return) and book your stay in the country you want to travel to.
- Make sure that the credit card and cash withdrawal card are valid and that there is a sufficient balance for the length of the travel, and make sure that the signature is behind the card, and that you do not depend entirely on the cards, it is preferable to take some traveler's checks and some cash.
Subscribe to banking phone services before you travel .. They work throughout the day and provide assistance in times of emergency.
Preventive measures during travel:
Remember that airlines prohibit carrying a number of dangerous substances inside the plane, such as:
Radioactive substances and drugs.
- Flammable solids, explosives and fireworks.
Liquid batteries, incendiaries, oxidizing materials, toxic materials and inflammable materials.
Electronic devices such as laptop computers, CD players, video games, computer games and mobile phones are not allowed to operate during takeoff and landing.
With regard to luggage, the traveler must observe the following: -
- Ensure that travel luggage is prepared in person and ascertained, and that no other luggage is accepted.
- Not to leave the luggage unattended and in a way that anyone can place things inside.
Ensure that the weight of the baggage is 30 kilograms per piece.
Adherence to the new security conditions related to the quantities of liquids, gel and volatile liquids permitted in handbags
Preventive measures in the country of travel:
Avoid raising suspicions around you and be the best for your country.
Avoid suspicious and suspicious places.
Avoid showing the contents of your cash wallet or showing off your money.
- Do not write the password of the electronic card behind the card, do not keep the secret numbers with the cards in one place, keep a copy of the credit cards and cash withdrawal cards and report it to the bank as soon as it is lost.
Put your money and your passport in (Safety Box), which is present in most hotels, and keep a copy of the passport.
- When you arrive to the country in question, go to your embassy and register your passport with them.
- When any problem occurs, tell the embassy of your country about it until the issue is addressed and it is in the cradle so that the problem does not get worse.
- Be careful with your children and your wife, and I know that they are responsible with your travel, so do not spoil their neglect.
Land travel: -
The summer season is one of the most important seasons to travel by road, given that the car will be the means of transportation in the city to travel to, and that traveling by car is another pleasure, which is the enjoyment of looking and seeing the cities and villages that are on the road.
Traveling by car is an important decision, and it must be prepared before traveling long enough, and because travel is an adventure, and those involved in it are keen to have a successful and enjoyable adventure, but lack of preparedness and lack of good planning may make it a failed or tired and expensive adventure.
So there are tips that we offer you, dear traveler, including: -
- Examine the car well, especially the tires, battery, lights, brakes and many belts, and that the driver makes sure that the car is in good condition and the ability to travel long distances from a specialist engineer or an experienced mechanic.
- The trip organizer must know the road map that he will take, and he must know the distance between the villages and the cities that are on the road, because this will help him in knowing the direction he takes in the event of an emergency. Is it better, for example, to return from where he came or continue to move forward?
- Ensure the presence of a first aid bag, mechanical emergencies, such as crane, subscription wires and spare tire.
- Ensure the validity of the mobile phone and its accessories, and purchase the networks for charging the phone battery from the car battery.
Traveling by car is a pleasure that can be taken as well, if the following points are taken into consideration: